types of animal captivity

Acredolo, L., & Goodwyn, S. (1997). Butovskaya, M. L., & Kozintsev, A. G. (1996). Interactions Between Red-Billed Oxpeckers and Black Rhinos in Captivity: Zoo Biology Vol 23(4) 2004, 347-354. Burwell, A. K., & Baldwin, A. L. (2006). Deleporte, P. (2007). De Rouck, M., Kitchener, A. C., Law, G., & Nelissen, M. (2005). An hourly variation in zoo visitor interest: Measurement and significance for animal welfare research: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 9(3) 2006, 249-256. Walker, N., & Kilpatrick, D. J. Threat bite involves biting one's own body—typically the hand, wrist, or forearm—while staring at the observer, conspecific, or mirror in a threatening manner. (1997). Arey, D. S., & Sancha, E. S. (1996). Picq, J.-L. (1992). Reade, L. S., & Waran, N. K. (1996). Why animals shouldn't be used in circuses. Cooper, J. J., & Mason, G. J. Moods, minds and molecules: The neurochemistry of social behavior: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 44(2-4) Sep 1995, 99-118. Visitors' effects on the welfare of animals in the zoo: A review: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 10(2) 2007, 169-183. Animals kept in an improper environment or fed the wrong diet can suffer, resulting in illness or death. Moore, I. T. (2000). Kunzl, C., Kaiser, S., Meier, E., & Sachser, N. (2003). (2008). Sellinger, R. L., & Ha, J. C. (2005). Is out of sight out of mind? Contribution to the Welfare of Captive Wolves ( Canis lupus lupus ): A Behavioral Comparison of Six Wolf Packs: Zoo Biology Vol 22(1) 2003, 33-44. Alving, W. R., & Kardong, K. V. (1994). Picciulin, M., Costantini, M., Hawkins, A. D., & Ferrero, E. A. Stereotypies in caged parrots, schizophrenia and autism: Evidence for a common mechanism: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 145(1-2) Oct 2003, 125-134. Behavioural adaptation of captive-born silvery marmosets Callithrix argentata argentata to a free-ranging environment: Dodo: Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Trusts Vol 33 1997, 155. (2006). 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(2007). Therrien, C. L., Gaster, L., Cunningham-Smith, P., & Manire, C. A. Effect of feeding boxes on the behavior of stereotyping Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland: Zoo Biology Vol 21(6) 2002, 573-584. (2004). Issues of choice and control in the behaviour of a pair of captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus): Behavioural Processes Vol 73(1) Aug 2006, 117-120. Law, G., & Tatner, P. (1998). Short Communication: Rat's Demand for Group Size: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 7(4) 2004, 267-272. (2007). Zoos and Eyes: Contesting Captivity and Seeking Successor Practices: Society & Animals Vol 13(1) 2005, 69-88. Enclosure Design and Space Utilization by Indian Leopards (Panthera pardus) in Four Zoos in Southern India: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 5(2) Apr 2002, 111-124. Nyhus, P. J., Tilson, R. L., & Tomlinson, J. L. (2003). Clubb, R., & Mason, G. (2003). Function and distribution of coalitions in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus): Primates Vol 41(3) Jul 2000, 249-265. Chernetsov, N., Kishkinev, D., Gashkov, S., Kosarev, V., & Bolshakov, C. V. (2008). Morzillo, A. T., Mertig, A. G., Garner, N., & Liu, J. in farms, stud farms and similar establishments. : Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 7(4) 2004, 243-251. (1998). Noise Exposure, Music, and Animals in the Laboratory: A Commentary Based on Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (LAREF) Discussions: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 9(4) 2006, 327-332. Vocal innovation: Behavioral and Brain Sciences Vol 30(4) Aug 2007, 415-416. Jones, M., van Lierop, M., & Pillay, N. (2008). Age and context affect the stereotypies of caged mink: Behaviour Vol 127(3-4) Dec 1993, 191-229. (2006). The effects of novel floorings on dustbathing, pecking and scratching behaviour of caged hens: Animal Welfare Vol 14(3) Aug 2005, 179-186. (2007). Meehan, C. L., & Mench, J. Ahola, L., Harri, M., Kasanen, S., Mononen, J., & Pyykonen, T. (2000). Less is more: Social learning of predator recognition requires a low demonstrator to observer ratio in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 57(3) Jan 2005, 275-282. Newberry, R. C. (1995). Choice tests for space in groups of laying hens: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 39(1) Jan 1994, 89-94. Psychological tics can also be identified, ranging from swaying to head bobbing to pacing. Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction: Zoo Biology Vol 13(5) 1994, 447-458. O'Brien, G. M., & Nankervis, R. F. (1994). Mendl, M. (1997). Sales, G. D., Milligan, S. R., & Khirnykh, K. (1999). A. [3] For example, a study has shown that zoo visitor density positively correlates with the number of gorillas banging on the barrier, and that low zoo visitor density caused gorillas to behave in a more relaxed way. Soule, M., Gilpin, M., Conway, W., & Foose, T. (1986). Environmentally enriched dog housing: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 59(1-3) Aug 1998, 101-113. Van de Weerd, H. A., Van Loo, P. L. P., Van Zutphen, L. F. M., Koolhaas, J. M., & Baumans, V. (1998). : Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 102(3-4) Feb 2007, 246-261. Hohn, M., Kronschnabl, M., & Ganslosser, U. Wahaj, S. A., Place, N. J., Weldele, M. L., Glickman, S. E., & Holekamp, K. E. (2007). Horikoshi-Beckett, C., & Schulte, B. Age at group formation alters behavior and physiology in male but not female CD-1 mice: Physiology & Behavior Vol 82(2-3) Sep 2004, 425-434. Behavioural adaptation of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) to captivity: Animal Welfare Vol 9(4) 2000, 413-420. de Azevedo, C. S., Cipreste, C. F., & Young, R. J. Effects of feeding enrichment on ruffed lemurs: Varecia variegata variegata and Varecia v. rubra: Dodo: Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Trusts Vol 32 1996, 67-75. Feeding enrichment and stereotypic behavior in spectacled bears: Zoo Biology Vol 18(5) 1999, 363-371. Cortisol reactivity and its relation to homecage behavior and personality ratings in tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) juveniles from birth to six years of age: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 27(1-2) Jan/Feb 2002, 139-154. Animal innovation defined and operationalized: Behavioral and Brain Sciences Vol 30(4) Aug 2007, 393-407. (1994). : Animal Welfare Vol 9(4) 2000, 343-357. : International Journal of Primatology Vol 24(5) Oct 2003, 987-1005. Empathy and attitudes to animals: Anthrozoos Vol 18(1) 2005, 18-27. The effect of a "freedom food" enrichment on the behaviour of broilers on commercial farms: Animal Welfare Vol 10(4) Nov 2001, 347-356. Novek, J. Lee, C., Fisher, A. D., Reed, M. T., & Henshall, J. M. (2008). A preliminary assessment of how zoo visitors evaluate animal welfare according to enclosure style and the expression of behavior: Anthrozoos Vol 17(2) 2004, 98-108. (1994). Tarou, L. R., Bashaw, M. J., & Maple, T. L. (2003). A note on the relationships between visitor interest and characteristics of the mammal exhibits in Recife Zoo, Brazil: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 105(1-3) Jun 2007, 223-226. Tovar, T. C., Moore, D., & Dierenfeld, E. (2005). Examples of stereotypical behaviours include pacing, self-injury, route tracing and excessive self-grooming. Evidence for a relationship between cage stereotypies and behavioural disinhibition in laboratory rodents: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 136(1) Nov 2002, 83-92. Today's zoos claim other reasons for keeping animals under human care: conservation, education and science. Environmentally invoked innovation and cognition: Behavioral and Brain Sciences Vol 30(4) Aug 2007, 420-421. Mellen, J., & MacPhee, M. S. (2001). Meehan, C. L., Millam, J. R., & Mench, J. Carotenoid-based status signalling in red-shouldered widowbirds (Euplectes axillaris): Epaulet size and redness affect captive and territorial competition: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 53(6) May 2003, 393-401. A note on a behavioural indicator of satisfaction in stabled horses: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 106(1-3) Aug 2007, 184-189. (2007). Environmental enrichment: A GAP analysis: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 102(3-4) Feb 2007, 329-343. de Jong, I. C., Fillerup, M., & Blokhuis, H. J. Behavioural and physiological responses of dogs entering re-homing kennels: Physiology & Behavior Vol 89(3) Oct 2006, 385-391. Hemsworth, P. H., Barnett, J. L., & Coleman, G. J. The behavioural repertoire on non-breeding group-housed female laboratory rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus): Animal Welfare Vol 10(4) Nov 2001, 437-443. Carlin, K. A. [2] Nonsocial factors include the presence of a small cut, a wound or irritant, cold weather, human contact, and frequent zoo visitors. Swaisgood, R. R., & Shepherdson, D. J. The effect of feeding enrichment toys on the behaviour of kennelled dogs (Canis familiaris): Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 114(1-2) Nov 2008, 182-195. (1993). Problem of reptile play: Environmental enrichment and play behavior in a captive Nile soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx triunguis: Zoo Biology Vol 15(3) 1996, 223-238. Shyan, M. R., Merritt, D., Kohlmeier, N. M., Barton, k., & Tenge, J. Bestelmeyer, S. V. (1999). Almli, L. M., & Burghardt, G. M. (2006). Lindemann-Matthies, P., & Kamer, T. (2006). [3] Self-bite involves biting one's own body—typically the arms, legs, shoulders, or genitals. Social and spatial relationships in captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum): Zoo Biology Vol 26(6) Nov-Dec 2007, 487-502. (1986). (2008). Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Enrichment on Stereotypic Behavior in Zoo Mammals: Zoo Biology Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 317-337. Behavioural effects of environmental enrichment for individually caged rabbits: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 52(1-2) Mar 1997, 157-169.

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